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Tuesday, June 15, 2010

History of Ovens


In old times people prepared their food over the open fire. The primitive man, who dug a hole in the sand in order to bake some food in it, could not even assume how far his invention would go owing to progress which has been constantly developing. Further first simple ovens appeared in ancient Greece. First of all they were used for baking bread. There are some suppositions that at that time food was prepared in bronze vessels which were placed on iron arrays. These arrays were installed in the upper part of an oven. Incidentally those bronze vessels remind of modern pans. In the middle Ages there chimneys and fireplaces appeared. According to the historical records the first oven was built in 1490, in France. The oven included also a flue.


The technical progress could not give a wide berth such important point as food preparation. Each epoch tried to strike a blow for the development of conditions of food preparation. Leonardo da Vinci invented an automatic drive for the spit. This invention enjoyed wide popularity in rich families. However the real technical revolution concerning the invention of ovens took place in the 18th century. In 1735 French architector François Cuvilliés presented the so called Castrol stove. It contained several openings which were covered by iron plates. In Germany about five years previously there cast iron ovens appeared. With the lapse of time they were in great requisition. These iron stoves were called Five-plate stoves. The oven was stoked with firewood and coals. In the 19th century Count Rumford presented his invention in the form of working iron kitchen stove. It was specially projected for large kitchens. The given kitchen stove which was called the Rumford stove could heat several kettles at the same time. The only disadvantage of Rumford stoves had to do with its large sizes and consequently it was impossible to place it in mid-size kitchens. The designs of cast iron stoves continued to develop.


The next step in stove manufacturing was made at that time when cities and towns were supplied with gas. In 1825 the first patent was granted for a gas stove and in England the first stove factory appeared. At the beginning of the 20th century gas stoves were available in many households. They contained top burners and built-in ovens.


The history of electric oven development began in the 1890’s. It is worth mentioning that in 1896 the first patent was granted for an electric oven to William Hadaway. Incidentally William Hadaway worked on the development of the first toaster. In the 1930’s at the market the competition between gas and electric ovens appeared. Nowadays the process of preparation of food does not present any difficulty. Modern gas and electric ovens has various functions for cooking, roasting, grilling or baking.

Electric Ovens vs Gas Ovens


Electric and gas ovens are comfortable and multifunctional devices. Any person can display his/her art of cookery in full thanks to this wonderful innovation of mankind. Modern science and industry has been constantly developing each year presenting improved products for every day life. That is why a great number of customers become perplexed finding themselves in a shop of household appliances because of diversity of products. Speaking about ovens the most frequent question is: What type of oven to choose: an electric oven or a gas one? It is not so easy to answer this question, therefore one needs to examine the individual characteristics of each oven separately.


An electric oven has a greater functionality than a gas one. It is operated with the help of electronics. Thus an electronic oven has a great variety of conditions and rates. The disadvantage of this oven consists in much energy consumption. The power of electric ovens ranges from 2 to 4 kilowatts. The electricity costs can be essential because the process of food preparation requires some time.


Modern electric ovens cost more than the gas ones because of their great functionality. So if you can afford yourself purchasing this wonder of engineering, the electric oven is the ideal option for you. But before doing it check the electric wiring in your house. If it is old and weak, the purchasing of the given oven is out of question for you. An electric oven needs much power in order to work fully.


In favour of the ovens in question one can also add its nice design. They blend practically with all interiors. At the same time the ovens are distinguished through the even heating. This point is of course very important when baking.


A gas oven will go very well with unpretentious people. The main argument concerning a gas oven is its economy. There are some affirmations that these ovens are not as perfect as the electric ones. However on the basis of the contrary assumptions one can draw a conclusion that food which is prepared on open fire is more delicious and healthy. The thing is that food on open fire is warmed faster and therefore there is less thermal exposure. Consequently nutritive properties and taste of foodstuffs keep better. In addition a modern gas oven is equipped with thermoelectric system, which meets the requirements of fire protection. Moreover one of the main advantages of a gas oven is barbecue. A gas oven has ideal conditions for preparing of this dish.


Electric and gas ovens have a bevy of individual properties. Therefore one has to weigh thoroughly all cons and pros in order to decide on the best option for him/her.

Tips for Purchasers of Electric Ovens


· If you cook from time to time and in addition you give preference only to simple dishes you may choose an oven which has three or four cooking options.


· If you prefer to stew food rather than to fry in this case your oven should contain a fan system. It will be even better to give preference to an oven with the annular heating element. The fan system allows you to cook at lower temperatures. The oven warms up faster and consequently roast meat will be more succulent and your pies will be puffier. In addition an electric oven with the fan system consumes less energy. So such oven will be repaid in a shorter space of time.


· Multifunctional electric oven is the best option for you in case if you cook much and often.


· If you like pizza, draw attention to the electric ovens which contain an option for pizza cooking.


· If you decided not to save money in order to purchase a good electric oven give preference to ovens with additional options such as fast reheating or some other options. It will save your time greatly.


· Be careful when choosing an electric oven. The total amount of functions which can be found in the instruction manual not always correspond to the number of cooking options. For instance, lighting or self cleaning options may be indicated as additional options. The latter option is important for the electric oven itself but not for process of cooking.


· There are people who do not like to spend too much time in the kitchen on that ground that they are too busy or simply do not enjoy the process of cooking. So they can purchase an electric oven which contains a number of programs for the automatic cooking of definite dishes.


· If you like to roast much meat or fish choose the ovens with the grill options.


· A built-in electric oven will be very good for you in case if you want to purchase a multifunctional oven. Namely built-in ovens have a wide range of up-to-date functions.

A Brief Review of Ovens produced by Consumer Goods Companies


AEG - is a very famous German brand. The company AEG has existed for more than 100 years. At the present time the company is one of the greatest European manufactures of household appliances. The brand in question embodies German quality, prestige and reliability. It is noteworthy that AEG production corresponds to the international standards.


Electric ovens by AEG are characterized by the maxim comfort and ease of handling. AEG ovens have a wide range of automatic programs, heating and cooking options. In addition they can use the leftover heat. Also some of electric ovens contain the so called “biofunction” which allows cooking at low temperatures.
Candy is an Italian brand of household appliances. It manufactures refrigerators, washing and dishwashing machines, kitchen stoves and others. Candy appeared at the market in 1945.


Undoubtedly, cooking becomes very pleasant owing to the built-in ovens Candy. Their innovative technologies combine with reliability. The user can be sure about the safety of ovens Candy because of a new door system «Tocco Sicuro» that means “safe touch”. Moreover upper and lower heaters of some Candy models go on in turn in order to keep the dish hot.


Electrolux is one of the oldest brands of the concern Electrolux which started out to exist in 1919. The Swedish concern is among the top three of household appliances manufactures. It exports about 80% of produce. Price difference of the models is explained by the presence or absence of additional functions, and it is not reflected on the quality itself. A range of electric ovens by Electrolux can satisfy the wants of the most exacting buyers. A kitchen stove Electrolux includes two ovens: a basic oven and express-oven. Such approach guarantees fast reheating of food and electricity saving when it is necessary. Glass ceramic cooking surface and modern electronic control will make the process of cooking very pleasant.
Compact ovens manufactured by the company Bosch are specially designed for place saving in small kitchens. In spite of the fact that ovens by Bosch are very compact, they include functions of microwave ovens and several heating options: upper and lower heat, convection, vario grill and convection grill.


Miele is a German brand of elite household appliances. The company specializes in production of refined household appliances. In 2002 the company Miele was awarded to the title “Best practice 2002”. Miele electric ovens represent well-designed products. Ovens can use the leftover heat in the process of cooking on their own. In other words the oven switches off when your dish is finally ready. It happens owing to the leftover heat. In addition some models of Miele ovens weigh produce. On the assumption of the weight the ovens fix time which is needed for reheating, cooking or defrosting.

What Can Be Cooked in an Oven


There are a great number of dishes that can be cooked in either electric or gas oven. In the process this way of cooking can be carried out practically without your participation. All the person has to do is to prepare ingredients for baking or roasting. It should be noted that baking is the process which means making food items quite ready owing to warmth which is accumulated inside the oven. The heat warms food items from every quarter. It is notably that the bigger heat goes from the upper part of an oven.


The food stuff you are going to bake is usually put in the heated oven. That is why when preparing ingredients it is desirable to turn on the oven. The temperature should be taken into account because different dishes require definite temperatures. In case if you want to shorten the time which you usually spend on oven cleaning after baking you should purchase greaseproff paper. Greaseproff paper is put on a baking tray. It is also used as an envelope for many products. After baking you can simply throw it away. Moreover most of the products can be baked in a frying pan which is placed in your oven.


You can bake many types of fruits and vegetables in the raw. These are apples, pears, potatoes, aubergine, vegetable marrows, paprika and others. If you cut vegetables beforehand the time of baking will be less. Fruits are baked on a special leaf of paper in order to prevent its spitting. In some cases you can also resort to the use of greaseproff paper. If you want to make vegetables tastier you should oil their cuts. Then add some spices in the oil.


It is worth mentioning that many people like to bake fish in the oven. First one needs to rub fish with salt. The fish cut can be rubbed with sour cream, oil or mustard. You can bake fish removed from scales or filleted fish enveloped in a greaseproof paper as well. Usually small fish is ready in just 20 minutes. A big fish such as carp will need 30-40 minutes till it is ready. If you decide to grill fish it is necessary to turn it over once while baking.


A chicken-broiler is another dish which can be baked without big preparations. It is salted and rubbed with mustard, sour cream, honey, or vegetable oil. Then it is placed in the oven for 40 minutes. In 40 minutes the chicken is pierced. If the juice is transparent the chicken is ready. In case if it is red you should leave the broiler for 20 minutes more.


Of course baking of big parts of meat is a time-taking process. You need constantly check the meat and pour it with meat juice. However in this case you can also resort to greaseproof paper.


Beyond all doubt baked pudding enjoys wide popularity among people who like to display their cookery art as well. Baked pudding is made of finely cut food items which are then baked in an oven. You can make puddings using different products by adding a raw egg in this mixture. Some ingredients are baked by adding sour cream or cheese instead of raw eggs.


You can prepare food in cassolettes which are put in an oven too. Of course you will need some time in order to cut finely all the ingredients. But then you will have no need to interfere in the process of cooking. In so doing you will get food with a very delicious taste which can not be reached by using other technologies.


Pastry and pies are baked in an oven without special participation of a person. There are many recipes of dough and pastry which do not require much time. Moreover you can also buy frozen pastry in a shop. A pie of half-finished products is made in the following way: make a flat cake of the dough. Put filling on it and then roll the edges of the pie in order to make the filling to be inside it. Place the pie on the baking sheet and bake it according to the recipe.


Nobody will deny that oven can be extremely helpful in preparing various delicious dishes.

How to Use an Oven


The given article may be considered as additional information to your service instruction of an oven irrespective of manufactured articles’ types. It is also intended for the improvement of your cooking results.


Application instructions can tell you many useful things about your new oven. An oven either an electric or gas one can contain multifunctional options that you need to know. This knowledge should be supported by theory and practice. For instance, recipes usually indicate definite temperatures for baking or roasting. In this case it is very necessary to know how your oven functions in order to get good results. Your cooking experience may stand you in good stead as well. In order to test the way your new oven works you can begin with very simple recipes. So taking into consideration all these points it will be not difficult for you to estimate temperatures and cooking length time you need.


An oven may also contain three positions which are heated differently. The top position of an oven can be used in case you want to cook something very quickly. That is why you need high temperature which is available in the top level. Food items at the middle level of an oven are cooked at moderate temperatures. And finally the lower position of the oven is used for cooking at low temperatures.


It is advisable to examine temperatures both in Celsius and Fahrenheit beforehand in order not to determine approximate temperatures. The conversions that are used very often are:
1. 160ºC - 325ºF
2. 180ºC - 350ºF
3. 190ºC - 375ºF
4. 200ºC - 400ºF


You should take into account that some cookbooks indicate temperatures ranges instead of determining precise temperature needed for cooking. So you should find out these range temperatures beforehand.
1. Cool/slow - 110 - 140ºC | 225 - 275ºF
2. Moderately slow - 150 - 160ºC | 300 - 325ºF
3. Moderate/warm - 180 - 190ºC | 350 - 375ºF
4. Moderately hot - 190 - 220ºC | 375 - 425ºF
5. Hot - 220 - 230ºC | 425 - 450ºF
6. Very hot - 250 - 260ºC | 475 - 500ºF


It is noteworthy that convection ovens distribute heat quicker than the other ovens during the process of cooking. Consequently the food is baked or roasted in a shorter time. Such approach will save your time and of course energy. But still you should learn some properties of convection ovens. First of all you should know that if you bake food it is desirable to reduce the temperature by 13ºC/25ºF. The time of baking which is indicated in the recipe remains the same. While roasting shorten the cooking time by 25%. Leave the temperature which is given in the recipe. You can put down temperatures and time changing of some recipes for future reference. Do not forget that if you open the oven too often temperatures will get constantly lower and in the issue you will need more time for cooking.


The last point concerns the preheating of the oven. Turn it on beforehand in order to receive the necessary temperature suggested in a cookbook. When you will place your food in the oven the temperature will be right for cooking.

Properties of Electric Gas Stoves


An oven is considered to be an integral attribute of any kitchen. You can not go without an oven if you want to bake pies or to roast a chicken. At the present time a person can choose between a great number of ovens whose design and construction seem to be brought to perfection. Consequently those who desire to purchase an oven can find the necessary option to his/her liking.


Nowadays many people give preference to electric gas stoves. This stove is considered to be an exclusive model which has come in not so long ago. Electric gas stoves combine the advantages of gas and electric stoves and namely: fast heating of gas burners and multitude of cooking options of an electric oven. As a rule the given stoves have 3 or 2 gas burners and 1 or 2 electric rings. Modern combined stoves may have gas cooking surface and electric oven and vice versa.


One of gas electric stoves is the model Electrolux EKK 513504X. The stove contains a wide range of options such as convection, gas control, cleaning option, electronic timer, electronic display and others. The electronic oven is a multifunctional one which contains 9 options: lower heating, fan system, upper heating, lighting, grill and others. The covering of the electric oven represents acid resistant enamel which is easy to clean. The maximum temperature of the oven makes up 300°. The number of levels of simultaneous cooking is three.


The electric gas stove Candy Trio is of great interest as well. The thing is that Candy Trion combines a big gas cooking surface, capacious oven and dishwashing machine for six sets of kitchen utensils. This combined stove is the best option for people who want to save place in the kitchen. Having the dimensions of 60х60х85 Trio is the only manufactured article at the market which can b placed in kitchens of different sizes. Thus a person can receive maximum benefit from a compact gas stove, electric oven and dishwashing machine.


Undoubtedly electric gas stoves have many benefits. First of all this article is chosen by people who like cooking on open fire. Secondly an electric oven guarantees even heating which is very important while baking or roasting.